What is Biosecurity
- Biosecurity is an integrated approach encompassing policy and regulatory frameworks to analyze and manage risks in the areas of animal health and food safety, including associated environmental risk.
- An integrated biosecurity programme is an application on logical and sound principles specific to an enterprise, monitoring of disease status, evaluation of ongoing poultry farm operations on continuous basis with an objective to contain the diseases at bare minimum level.
- The farms should strive to maximize the benefits achievable through effective biosecurity and to be consistent with HACCP (Hazard Analysis, Critical Control Points) principles which can be developed easily.
Checklist for Implementing an Effective Poultry Biosecurity Plan
Implementing any of these suggestions will reduce the risk of disease entry. Each additional step implemented will further reduce biosecurity risks.
- Secure perimeter; Keep “restricted” signs posted at drive entrances.
- No trees or dense foliage around sheds, no roosting site for wild birds.
- Restrict entry to essential personnel and record entry.
- Keep poultry houses locked; fasten from inside while inside.
- Provide boots and coveralls for staff and visitors for each shed.
- Staff should change into dedicated/disposable boots and coveralls upon entering each different shed. Clean footbaths may be appropriate within a shed if changed regularly.
- When caring for flocks, the resident flock manager should keep clothing (including shoes, boots, hat and gloves) separate from those worn off the farm.
- After caring for the flock, change clothes completely and wash hands and arms before leaving premises.
- Flock manager and other caretakers should not visit any other poultry flocks.
- If possible, provide show facilities for visitors.
- Remove poultry mortality daily. Store or dispose them off by an approved method.
- Ensure staff and visitors are aware of the dangers of raising or visiting other avian species and their contact with your flock.
- Essential visitors such as owners, meter readers, service personnel, fuel and feed delivery drivers, and poultry catchers and haulers must wear protective outer clothing, including boots and headgear, before being allowed near the flocks.
- Monitor vehicles entering premises for poultry pickup or delivery, feed delivery, fuel delivery, etc., to determine if they have been scrubbed down and the undercarriage and tyres spray-disinfected before entering.
- Minimize entry of equipment, supplies, etc. and take appropriate precautions such as disinfection, removal from shipping boxes, etc.
- Clean and disinfect all coops, crates and other poultry containers or equipment before and after use.
- Maintain a strong vector control program for insect, mammalian and avian vectors. Maintain bait stations (bait stations must be numbered and a map kept of their location; bait stations must be placed at regular intervals around the sheds), clean up feed spills, prevent entry by wild animals (rats, birds, insects) or pets (dogs, cats). Use screens in windows, air inlets, doors feed bin exhausts etc.
- Maintain minimal vegetation and no debris around poultry facilities to lessen food and shelter opportunities for vectors.
- Ensure that feed, water and bedding sources are free from infectious agents.
- Review your biosecurity plan and flock health program, including vaccination protocols, with veterinarian on a regular basis.
- Sick or dying birds should be sent to a state laboratory for Commercial growers should contact their flock supervisor.
Major Routes for Disease and Pathogen Transmission
The following are major routes through which the diseases get transmitted to birds. Always take care of these routes for the implementation of effective biosecurity plan.
- Poultry: transfer of birds from production area to other production area and dead bird disposal
- Other animals: wild birds, feral and domestic animals, including other livestock and pets, insects, rodents—rats/mice etc., domestic birds
- People: farm personnel and family members living on site; contractors, maintenance personnel, neighbours, service-person, visitors; disease can be transmitted by, for example, hands, boots, clothing, dirty hair etc.
- Equipment: Feeders, waterers, nests, debeakers, vaccinators, sprayers, burners etc.
- Vehicles: Feed Trucks, Product & waste collection vehicles
- Air: transmission as an aerosol or dust
- Water supply: water supplies may become contaminated with faeces from contact with avian or other animal species
- Feed: feed may be contaminated by the raw materials used, post-production and during transport, or by exposure to rodents and birds on the property. Bacteria and mould in poor quality or damaged feed may also be a concern. An integrated Biosecurity programme must be regarded as an application on logical and sound principles specific to enterprise, monitoring of disease status, evaluation of ongoing poultry farm operations on continuous basis with an objective to contain the diseases at bare minimum level.
The location and structural biosecurity principles are to be followed at the very beginning, while setting up the farm. Operational biosecurity measures in general revolve around three basic principles viz:
- Isolation i.e. isolation of sick birds
- Traffic control i.e. controlling human and vehicular traffic in the farm
- Sanitation i.e. keeping the farm clean
It is of utmost importance that the birds must be free from stress for which overcrowding should be avoided, appropriate ventilation and temperature must be regulated to make the environment ambient. Cleanliness, good quality feed/premix and potable drinking water must be ensured. These basic management measures will reduce immunosuppression thus making the birds hardy to pathogens.
- General Guidelines for Biosecurity at Central Poultry Development Organizations. 2015. Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Government of India.
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