Enterotoxemia (pulpy kidney disease)
Signs: Circling, staggering, falling, recumbency, convulsions, sudden death
PM lesion: Soft pulpy kidneys
Treatment: Not effective but oral and parentral antibiotics may be tried
Control: Vaccination; generally annually, 1 month prior to breeding/lambing. Lamb at 10 days of age if both parents aren’t vaccinated or else after 4 months of age.
Signs: Sudden body temperature rise, dyspnoea, bleeding from natural orifices
PM lesions: splenomegaly
Treatment: Pencillins, Oxytetracycline, supportive therapy, anti anthrax serum 50-100ml iv
Control: Anthrax spore vaccine @1ml s/c annually before onset of monsoon
Note: Post-mortem should not be conducted.
Signs: fever, abortion in late pregnancy, orchitis
Diagnostics: Rose Bengal Precipitation Test, Milk Ring Test
Treatment: No specific treatment, Oxytetracycline has proven to be successful
Control: Brucella cotton-19 strain vaccine annually.
Miscellaneous bacterial diseases
Listeriosis: Circling disease/silage disease, to be differentially diagnosed from gid, thiamine deficiency. For treatment, large doses of Oxytetracycline or Penicillin may help in some cases.
Tetanus: Source: horse dung etc; Signs: stiffness, lock jaw; Prevention: tetanus antitoxin; Treatment: tetanus toxoid, procaine penicillin, muscle relaxants, etc.
Foot rot: Signs: lameness, lifting of foot, loss of weight bearing; Differential diagnosis: nail piercing, any foot injury; Prevention: keep animal in dry place, regular hoof trimming; Treatment: copper sulphate, potassium permanganate foot dips, in case foot is afflicted with pus, use penicillin.
Mastitis: Diagnosis: Strip cup test (under field conditions, reagent for test can be made using 5 spoons of 3% detergent solution + 500ml water), add the milk in reagent, if flakes appear, animal is positive for mastitis. Treatment includes use of broad spectrum antibiotics like enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, gentamicin, streptopenicillin, etc.
PPR (Peste-des-Petites Ruminants)
Signs: erosive stomatitis, high fever, conjuctivitis, bronchopneumonia, shooting diarrhea
Treatment: conservative management with broad-spectrum antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and anti-histaminic drugs, application of glycerin after washing with 1% potassium permanganate solution.
Control: isolation of the affected animal
Prevention: vaccination (Raksha PPR/Bio PPR): 1st dose at 3-6 months of age, repeat annually (literature: after 3 yrs).
Signs: odema of lips, gums, tongue, cyanosis of tongue, lameness
Treatment: conservative management with broad-spectrum antibiotics
Prevention: Raksha blu vaccine, 1st dose at 3-6 months of age, then repeat annually.
Sheep and goat pox
Signs: pock lesions on whole body, mortality, fever, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and enlargement of all superficial lymph nodes, especially prescapular lymph nodes
Vaccination: prior to occurrence. The vaccination is done every year in healthy sheep of above 3 months of age with Sheep Pox Vaccine.
FMD (Foot & Mouth Disease)
Signs: vesicles & ulcers in interdigital spaces, lameness
Treatment: Streptopenicilllin, wash with 1% solution of potassium permanganate, apply glycerin on affected areas
Prevention: Raksha FMD every 6 months – Sept/Oct and March/April.
Orf/contagious ecthyma/mawa: Signs: pustular dermatitis, negligible mortality, more prevalent in goats. Prevention: orf vaccine (Mukteshwar strain).
Parasites in sheep and goats
More prevalent in plain areas
Signs: immature flukes are seen which are more pathogenic, mucosal plugs in the faeces (soiled perineal area), foetid/watery diarrhoea, intestinal sloughing leads to putrification and foul smelling diarrhoea.
Treatment: Oxyclozanide, Triclabendazole.
More prevalent in hilly areas.
Signs: bottle jaw, hepatitis, jaundice, anorexia, no smelly diarhoea.
Treatment: Triclabendazole, Rafoxanide (for sheep & goat)
Monieziosis: 90% sheep are positive. Occurrence: spring rise. Treatment: Praziquintal, Fenbendazole.
Mainly Haemonchosis (sucks 0.05ml blood/day)
Occurrence: spring rise (Feb-March), 28-30 degree celsius, humidity
Acute haemonchosis: animal is normal, cause of immediate death is blood loss, on post-mortem abomasal haemorrhagic bites are seen.
Chronic haemonchosis: signs: pale mucous membrane, bottle jaw, reduced growth, greenish diarrhoea , hypoprotienaemia (economic loss), on post-mortem pale organs, haemorrhagic bites are seen.
Treatment: Albendazole, Fenbendazole, Levamisole
Dictyocaulus/lung worm infestation
10-20% prevalent in plains and 80% in hilly areas
Signs: coughing with husk/hoose sound, fever, eggs in nasal discharge and sputum
Post-mortem: put sheep/goat lung in luke warm water, lung worms can be seen.
Problem of young ones – leads to high mortality
Signs: Hind limbs soiled with faeces (after 25 days of birth generally).
Differential diagnosis: at 0-15 days from Rotaviral diarrhea and colibacillosis, at 25 days to 2 months generally coccidiosis occur.
Treatment: Amprolium (given in drinking water), Monensin, Lasalocid, Sulphonamides (oral).
Flies: Larvae of warble fly infiltrate sub-cutaneous tissue of goats. Warble fly occurrs during spring rise in hilly belts of affecting generally goats. Treatment includes use of ivermectin (sub-cutaneous/pour-on). For prevention, treat all goats with ivermectin.
Mites: Sarcoptes in goats and Psoroptes in sheep – deep burrowing mites. Signs: blackish skin colour. Treatment: Ivermectin (oral -200microgram/kg body weight of animal).
Gid: Cerebrospinal nematodiosis generally seen in goats. Ocurrence – ending of July to October, after rains mosquitos increase. Treatment: Ivermectin 200 microgram/kg during July ending (Treatment of Haemonchus +Prophylaxis of Gid).
Dr. Abhinav Thappa
Veterinary Assistant Surgeon, Block Samba,
Department of Sheep Husbandry, Government of Jammu & Kashmir
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Ochieng Damascus says
This site is really good 👏👏
Loved reading though am just a student majoring in animal health