- The Nili and Ravi are two type of buffaloes found in the valley of Montgomery and Ferozepur.
- There is no essential difference between the two types. Although for a long time they were treated as different breeds, but closer study indicated it was distinction without a difference, and now, they are officially treated as one breed.
- The animals are massive, black in color, sometimes brown with white markings.
- The best animals are found in the riverine tracts along the Sutlej river, south-west of Pakpattan tehsil, Mailsi tehsil of Multan district and Bahawalpur state.
- Species: Buffalo
- Synonyms: Panch Kalyani
- Habitat: Ferozepur district of Punjab.
- Breeding tract: Nili Ravi buffaloes are found in Fazilka, Ferozepur, Zira and Makhu tehsils of Ferozepur district; and Patti and Khemkaran tehsils of Amritsar district. Whole tract of Sutlej is breeding tract. It is also found in Lahore, Sheikhupura, Faizabad, Okora, Sahiwal, Multan, Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar districts of Pakistan Punjab.
- Main utility: Milk for food, draught power for work.
- Origin: India, Pakistan. The name Nili is supposed to have been derived from the blue water of river Sutlej. Ravi buffaloes are mostly bred in Pakistan around the river Ravi, after which they are named. After 1960, they were classified into one breed as Nili – Ravi
- Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka.
- Color: Usually black with white marking on forehead, face, muzzle, legs and tail.
- Number of Horns: 2
- Shape of Horns: Horns are tightly curved and circular in cross section, small in size. Horns are less curled than Murrah.
- Visible characteristics: The most desired character of the buffaloes with such white markings highly desired and popularly called “Panch Kalyani”).
|5.||Height (Avg. cm)||140||134|
|6.||Body length (Avg. cm)||160||165|
|7.||Heart Girth (Avg. cm)||230||208|
|8.||Weight (Avg. kg)||567||454|
|9.||Birth Weight (Avg. kg)||35||34|
|10.||Length (Avg. cm)||159.0||147.3|
- Body color: The color is usually black but brown is not uncommon. Prominent white markings are present.
- Horns: Horns are small, tightly curled but slightly less curled as compared to that of Murrah and circular in cross section.
- Markings: White markings are found on hind legs, forelegs and white spots on forehead, muzzle and tail switch.
- Eyes: They have usually walled eyes.
- Tail: Tail is thick at the base, gradually tapers towards the end and extends below hocks with a white switch.
- Body: Nili-Ravi buffaloes are large size and have deep and low set frames.
- Head: The head is elongated, bulging at top and is depressed between eyes. Forehead is convex at the centre.
- Neck: Neck is long and thin in females while it is thick and powerful in the males.
- Udder: Udder is well shaped, capacious and extends well forward to naval flap. Pink markings are sometimes seen on udder and brisket.
- Teats: Teats are long, even squarely placed.
- Management System: Intensive
- Mobility: Stationary
- Feeding of adults: Grazing Fodder and Concentrate
- Housing: Farmers usually keep the animals along with them. Provisions of an open shed are made along the residential premises of the farmers and the animals are kept there. The day to day operations are carried out by the farmer in the shed only. Animal houses are usually open, made up of mud and bricks, full walled and have mud floor. Most of the farmers grow fodder for feeding to their animals.
- Feeding system: Animals are stall fed.
- Feeds to be fed: They are fed different kinds of roughages such as barley and wheat straw, cornstalks and sugar cane In addition, they are given concentrate mixtures. If grazing is available, they graze all day long.
- Feeding of concentrates: 1kg/3kg of milk.
- Feeding of roughages: 1/10th of body weight per day.
- Milking: should be done twice a day.
- Milking practice: full hand milking should be done. Avoid knuckling.
- Milk let down time: Averages 3 to 4 minutes.
|Age at first calving (Avg. months)||45||40||53|
|Calving interval (months)||16||10||31|
|Lactation length (days)||305 (standardized)||–||–|
|Milk yield per lactation (kg)||1850||1586||1929|
|Milk fat (%)||6.8||5.1||8.0|
|Daily lactation in peak period (kg)||15.9||7.3||22.8|
|Dry period (days)||90||65||110|
- Peculiarity of the breed: Similar to Murrah in almost all respects except for some white markings on extremities, and walled eyes.
- Research highlights: The season of calving had significant effect on milk yield. Buffaloes calving in spring showed the highest and those calving in summer showed the lowest milk yield. Sex of calf did not affect milk yield.
- Ravi breed is heavier than Nili buffalo, but their yields are same.
Major problems associated with health of Nili-Ravi buffaloes
- Reproductive problems: repeat breeders, anestrous, metritis, reproductive inefficiency.
- Udder problems: poor udder development, milk let down problem, mastitis and teat defects.
- Herd health and calf management.
From Rs. 75,000/- to Rs. 1,50,000/- (tentative).
Can be purchased from
- Gupta Dairy Farm: Address; plot No. 41-42, Govind Colony, near water tank, Doon Valley College Road, Jundla Gate, Karnal-132001, Haryana. Phone no. 09416031427. Website: www.guptadairyfarm.com, email: [email protected]
- Khurana Dairy Farm, Rohtak, Haryana. Mobile Number :+91-9215450001 / 9215430001 / 9215450003
- CIRB, Sub-Centre Nabha, Punjab. Contact Details: Sanjay Kumar, Scientist & Officer I/c. Ph. 01765263167
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White marks on all legs compulsory or can be relaxed while selecting bull
Dr. Amandeep Singh says
Dear Dr. Mehta
It is mandatory that all the phenotypic characters should be present in an animal. If in case, these are not present, it infers that the bull may be a cross bred one.